Fard, Sunnah, Mustahabbat and Makruhat in Wudu
The compulsory actions or Fard in Wudu (Ablution) are as follows:
Washing the face from hair of the forehead to the lower portion of the chin; and across from one ear to the other
Washing both hands and arms upto the elbows
Performing the Masa’h (wiping with wet hands, one fourth of one’s head)
Washing both the feet upto the ankles
There are total 13 Sunnah actions in Ablution. These are:
Saying the Intention (Niyyah)
Washing the hands, three times, upto the wrists
Brushing teeth with a tooth-stick (Miswak)
Rinsing the mouth, thrice
Sniffing water into the nostrils, thrice,
Combing (doing Khilal) the beard with the fingers
Passing fingers of both hands, against each other, and also passing them through the toes (Khilal of fingers and toes)
Washing, each limb, three times
Performing the Masa’h once over the whole head
Performing the Masa’h of the two ear
Performing Ablution (Wudu) in proper order
Washing each part, one after the other, without pause, to ensure that no part dries up before the next step. (see topics on Mas’ha on Socks)
In addition to Fard and Sunnah there are some other desirable actions (Mustahabbat) in Wudu. These are:
To begin Ablution (Wudu) from the right side Some scholars regard this among the Masnun (Sunnah) acts. This is quite likely.
Performing ‘Masa’h’ of the nape.
Performing Ablution all by himself, without taking other’s help.
Performing Ablution while sitting at a clean and elevated place.
Some things that are not considered as desirable in Wudu are known as Makruhat.
Performing Ablution at a dirty place
Blowing one’s nose with the right hand
Talking worldly affairs while performing Ablution
Performing Ablution in a manner contrary to Sunnah